Scientific Name. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. Synonyms. Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Crassula pinnata L. f. Kalanchoe. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae) is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India. Objectives: To study the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) leaf extracts viz. petroleum ether, alcohol and water on healing of excision, resutured incision and .
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Bryophyllum pinnatum is a perennial herb, widely used in the treatment of several conditions in folklore medicine. The effects of sub-acute treatment of the aqueous extract of B. Adult rats were randomly distributed into three groups of six rats each and administered 0, Blood levels of urea, creatinine and hematological parameters, as well as epididymal sperm parameters were measured.
Kidney and testis of animals were removed and organ weight to body weight ratios were determined. Histology of the organs was also analyzed. The extract did not alter sperm count, motility, morphology and viability as well as blood urea and creatinine levels.
The extract did not alter histology and relative weights of the kidney and testis. It can be concluded that sub-acute administration of the aqueous extract of B. It is pinnatu to Madagascar, but has been naturalized in several other regions, including bryophyllym temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions in tropical America, India, China, Australia and Africa, including, rheumatism, body pain, arthritis, heartburn, skin ulcers, peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus, microbial infections, and hypertension [ 1 – 6 ].
In Nigeria, the plant is particularly known for its effective wound healing properties and detachment of the umbilicus of infants. Bryophy,lum studies on Brtophyllum.
Studies have also reported a wide range of active phytochemicals such as alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides [ 18 ], flavonoids [ 1619 ], steroids [ 9 ], bufadienolides [ 20 ], lipids and organic acids [ 21 ].
Although, folklore claims of many herbal remedies are yet to be authenticated scientifically, B. This has enhanced the promotion of the use of B. Additionally, cost of orthodox medications and the development of resistance to most orthodox chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in the use of herbal medications like B.
In many cases, B. Aside from the earlier stated factors, B. This makes safety evaluation of frequently used medicinal plants imperative.
The present study was thus aimed at investigating the effects of sub-acute administration of aqueous B. Fresh leaves of B. Brykphyllum leaves were air dried, pulverized g and extracted exhaustively in distilled water for 72 h by cold maceration. The filtrate was subsequently evaporated to obtain the dry extract using a rotary evaporator.
The extract was then tested for the presence of phytochemicals using standard methods [ 25 ]. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats of 12 w of age, obtained from the animal house of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria were used for the study. The animals were given standard rodent chow and clean drinking water ad libitum.
All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Research Ethics Committee of the University, in accordance to the guide for care and use of laboratory animals [ 26 ].
The animals were randomly distributed into three groups of 6 rats per group. The first and second groups were administered At the end of extract administration, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation under deep diethyl ether anaesthesia. Blood samples were collected separately into labelled plain and EDTA bottles, for measurement of urea, creatinine and haematological parameters, respectively.
Animals were dissected and sperm was extracted from cauda epididymis for sperm analysis. The kidney and testis were also removed, weighed and routinely processed for histological evaluation. Serum levels of urea and creatinine were then assayed. Creatinine was measured using alkaline picrate method [ 27 ], and urea was assayed using urease-Berthelot method [ 28 ]. Whole blood collected into EDTA bottle was used to assay packed cell volume PCVand total white blood cell WBClymphocyte and neutrophil counts, using standard laboratory techniques [ 29 ].
The method of Amelar et al. Several 1 mm incisions were made on it and sperm was gently drawn into a plastic transfer pipette and transferred into 5 ml test tubes and vigorously shaken for homogeneity and dispersal of sperm cells.
Sperm was then analysed to determine sperm motility, sperm count, percentage of abnormal sperm cells sperm morphology and percentage of viable sperm cells sperm viability following standard procedures [ 29 ]. All alterations from the normal structures were registered and histopathological changes between control and experimental rats were noted.
The images were photographed with an Olympus Model BX51 microscope at a magnification of x. The doses used in the present study were selected with the specific aim of evaluating the effect of lower biologically active doses of the extract. The LD50 of B. In many previous animal studies, doses of B.
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The toxicological profile of subacute treatment of the aqueous extract of B. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous B.
Percent viable sperms sperm viability and abnormal sperms sperm morphology in extract-treated rats were also not altered, when compared to control values Table 3. Phytochemical constituents of aqueous B.
Effects of sub-acute pinnatuk of aqueous B. The results indicated that B. Organ-to-body weight ratio is a useful indicator often employed in the assessment of organ toxicity [ 32 ]. Kidneys of treated and control rats showed normal architecture and structure with numerous glomeruli and tubules, and blood vessels lined by endothelial cells Figure 1A, B and C.
The implication of this observation was that sub-acute treatment of the plant extract had no adverse pinnatu, on the kidney, showing a positive correlation with the biochemical parameters measured. Previous studies have reported that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata B. Photomicrographs of kidney following sub-acute administration of aqueous leaf extract A: Shows normal architecture and structure with numerous glomeruli and tubules; C: The testis is highly susceptible to toxicity by chemicals and many medicinal plants have been reported to adversely affect testicular function in animals [ 3435 ].
In the present study, the plant had no effect on sperm count, pinnarum, morphology and viability Table 3. Additionally, testes of control and extract-treated rats showed normal histology with numerous seminiferous tubules containing spermatozoa concentrated in the lumen Figure 2A, B and C.
Testicular organ-to-body weight ratio was also not altered bryophylulm the extract Table 4. These results provided evidence that subacute administration of the plant extract exerted no adverse piinnatum on testicular function and fertility in rats.
Shows normal histology of testis with normal seminiferous epithelium, normal spermatogenic cell differentiation, and numerous spermatozoa in the lumen; B: Shows normal architecture of testis with normal spermatogenic cell differentiation, and normal sperm production; C: WBC and its differentials like lymphocytes and neutrophils and other haematological parameters are measurable indices of the blood, which can bryopyhllum used to evaluate hematopoietic function [ 34 ]. Elevation in their levels is indicative of response to an immunological challenge.
Neutrophils are important phagocytic cells normally elevated in the early inflammatory response [ 3637 ], while lymphocytes are subtypes of leucocytes critically essential pinnatym providing cell mediated immunity.
Neutrophil count was significantly reduced, while PCV was not altered in treated groups compared to control group Table 5. Inhibition of neutrophils suggested that the plant might depress primary immune response, including inflammation. Previously, the aqueous extract of B. These properties could partly be related to the neutrophilic effect observed in this study. Additionally, the results indicated that the plant might not cause anaemia as it did not affect PCV.
Earlier, Ufelle et al. We attributed these different results to different concentrations that were used in the studies; however, more studies are necessary to provide better understanding of beyophyllum mechanisms involved. Further, non-characterization of the extracts is a limitation of this study and it is recommended that further studies to identify and establish the chemical structure s of the active components be taken up.
Overall, these results indicated that B. Subacute administration of the plant might exert no adverse effect on piinnatum kidney and testis, but could potentially depress neutrophil activity in rats. The phytoconstituents of the plant obtained in this study included flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids, which were similar to those reported earlier [ 1520 ].
Flavonoids and other important antioxidant constituents of the plant were known free radical scavengers, capable of preventing oxidative cell damage and reducing oxidative stress. Other components like saponins and triterpenoids could be toxic to certain cellular components. Different effects that were observed might therefore be related to the numerous phytochemical compounds contained in the extract.
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About the Journal The Indian Journal of Pharmacy was started in as “a quarterly journal devoted to the Science and practice of Pharmacy bryophhyllum all its branches”. Abstracting and Indexing Information. Subscribe to our Newsletter All our latest content delivered to your inbox.